In general the localization of a robot in an environment is not easy, but for wheeled robot sometimes is possible to use the odometry. This techniques estimate the position of the robot from the wheels rotation.
An Infrared sensor use a light to recognise an obstacle in front of the robot. In general you must evaluate the parametric curve to convert a tension value to distance. In this guide all information about the Sharp GP2D120.
The SFR08 is an ultrasonic sensor with an internal micro controller to evaluate autonomously the distance of the obstacle in front of the sensor. In this guide all information about the ultrasonic sensors.
A thermal sensor transform a temperature in an equivalent tension value. In this guide a detailed overview on the LM35 sensor and the information when you convert a Voltage in degree.
CURRENT AND VOLTAGE
To measue the current and the voltage with a micro controller is sometimes required to adapt the tension to voltage that a ADC can read, to read the current is required a converter current to voltage.
An encoder can convert an angle position in an equivalent signal. In this guide an introduction about the relative encoder with two signals in quadrature, and if available a signal to "zero" value.
IMPLEMENTING AN ENCODER
How I can convert a signal from an encoder to a angle or velocity? In this guide all complete information to use this sensor with a microcontroller with a Quadrature Encoder Interface (QEI).
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